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動詞時態

時態可以簡單分為現在、過去、未來三個基本時態

每個基本時態都有四個進階時態:

簡單式進行式完成式完成進行式簡單式 習慣
進行式 某個時間點動作或狀態進行中
完成式 以基本時態為基準,在這之前某個時間點、動作或狀態已經結束。
完成進行式 和完成式一樣,特別強調進行中。

現在 She sings 現在進行 She is singing 現在完成 She has sung 現在完成進行 She has been singing
sang was singing had sung had been singing
She will sing will be singing will have sung will have been singing

現在簡單式
現在進行式be + Ving
be動詞 + 現在分詞
He is opening his book

現在完成式過去式的寫法
I bought the camera 我買了那台相機
現在完成式的寫法
I have bought the camera 我買了那台相機

中文意思相同,都是買了那台相機,但是英文傳達了兩個訊息,買了那台相機,而且現在還擁有

have + p.p.
否定
have not p.p.
疑問句
have 主詞 p.p.

名詞

名詞顧名思義,表示名稱。

根據特性可分為:


普通名詞固有名詞物質名詞集合名詞抽象名詞根據可數和不可數: 可數名詞不可數名詞普通名詞 有共同名稱的名詞 boy,girl,pen,elephant
固有名詞特定人事物 Italy
物質名詞物質名詞不可數 salt,snow,air,water,gold,wood Butter is made from milk 奶油由牛奶製成。
要表示物質名詞數量時,可以使用a cup of,apound of I bought three pounds of sugar 我買了三磅糖。 集合名詞集合名詞可數 family,class ,people
抽象名詞沒有具體型態,只存在腦中的名詞。 beauty,grace,advice 可數名詞不可數名詞

同一單字,不同詞性

She is kind to everyone 她對每個人都很友善。
What kind of business  are you in? 你從事哪種行業?

英文八大詞性

名詞 noun (n.)
ex. book,fish

代名詞 pronoun (pron.)
ex. she,he

動詞 verb (v.)
ex. go,run,study

形容詞 adjective (a.)
ex. tall,pretty,good

副詞 adverb (ad.)
ex. very,too,here

感嘆詞 interjection (int.)
ex. oh

連接詞 conjunction (conj.)
and,or,but
ex. Are you girl or boy?

介系詞 preposition (prep.)
ex. at,in,with

Chapter 23: Aunt March Settles the Question

Like bees swarming after their queen, mother and daughters hovered about Mr. March the next day, neglecting everything to look at, wait upon, and listen to the new invalid, who was in a fair way to be killed by kindness. As he sat propped up in a big chair by Beth's sofa, with the other three close by, and Hannah popping in her head now and then `to peek at the dear man', nothing seemed needed to complete their happiness. But something was needed, and the elder ones felt it, though none confessed the fact. Mr. and Mrs. March looked at one another with an anxious expression, as their eyes followed Meg. Jo had sudden fits of sobriety, and was seen to shake her fist at Mr. Brooke's umbrella, which had been left in the hall. Meg was absent-minded, shy, and silent, started when the bell rang, and colored when John's name was mentioned. Amy said, Everyone seemed waiting for something, and couldn't settle down, which was queer, since Father was safe at home, and Beth inno…

Chapter 21: Laurie Makes Mischief, and Jo Makes Peace

Jo's face was a study next day, for the secret rather weighed upon her, and she found it hard not to look mysterious and important. Meg observed it, but did not trouble herself to make inquiries, for she had learned that the best way to manage Jo was by the law of contraries, so she felt sure of being told everything if she did not ask. She was rather surprised, therefore, when the silence remained unbroken, and Jo assumed a patronizing air, which decidedly aggravated Meg, who in turn assumed an air of dignified reserve and devoted herself to her mother. This left Jo to her own devices, for Mrs. March had taken her place as nurse, and bade her rest, exercise, and amuse herself after her long confinement. Amy being gone, Laurie was her only refuge, and much as she enjoyed his society, she rather dreaded him just then, for he was an incorrigible tease, and she feared he would coax the secret from her.
She was quite right, for the mischief-loving lad no sooner suspected a mystery than…

Chapter 22: Pleasant Meadows

Like sunshine after a storm were the peaceful weeks which followed. The invalids improved rapidly, and Mr. March began to talk or returning early in the new year. Beth was soon able to lie on the study sofa all day, amusing herself with the well-beloved cats at first, and in time with doll's sewing, which had fallen sadly behind hand. Her once active limbs were so stiff and feeble that Jo took her for a daily airing about the house in her strong arms. Meg cheerfully blackened and burned her white hands cooking delicate messes for `the dear', while Amy, a loyal slave of the ring, celebrated her return by giving away as many of her treasures as she could prevail on her sisters to accept.
As Christmas approached, the usual mysteries began to haunt the house, and Jo frequently convulsed the family by proposing utterly impossible or magnificently absurd ceremonies, in honor of this unusually merry Christmas. Laurie was equally impracticable, and would have had bonfires, skyrockets, …

Chapter 20: Confidential

I don't think I have any words in which to tell the meeting of the mother and daughters. Such hours are beautiful to live, but very hard to describe, so I will leave it to the imagination of my readers, merely saying that the house was full of genuine happiness, and that Meg's tender hope was realized, for when Beth woke from that long, healing sleep, the first objects on which her eyes fell were the little rose and Mother's face. Too weak to wonder at anything, she only smiled and nestled close in the loving arms about her, feeling that the hungry longing was satisfied at last. Then she slept again, and the girls waited upon their mother, for she would not unclasp the thin hand which clung to hers even in sleep.
Hannah had `dished up' and astonishing breakfast for the traveler, finding it impossible to vent her excitement in any other way, and Meg and Jo fed their mother like dutiful young storks, while they listened to her whispered account of Father's state, Mr. …

Chapter 19: Amy's Will

While these things were happening at home, Amy was having hard times at Aunt March's. She felt her exile deeply, and for the first time in her life, realized how much she was beloved and petted at home. Aunt March never petted any one. She did not approve of it, but she meant to be kind, for the well-behaved little girl pleased her very much, and Aunt March had a soft place in her old heart for her nephew's children, though she didn't think it proper to confess it. She really did her best to make Amy happy, but, dear me, what mistakes she made. Some old people keep young at heart in spite of wrinkles and gray hairs, can sympathize with children's little cares and joys, make them feel at home, and can hide wise lessons under pleasant plays, giving and receiving friendship in the sweetest way. But Aunt March had not this gift, and she worried Amy very much with her rules and orders, her prim ways, and long, prosy talks. Finding the child more docile and amiable than her …

Chapter 18: Dark Days

Beth did have the fever, and was much sicker than anyone but Hannah and the doctor suspected. The girls knew nothing about illness, and Mr. Laurence was not allowed to see her, so Hannah had everything her own way, and busy Dr. Bangs did his best, but left a good deal to the excellent nurse. Meg stayed at home, lest she should infect the Kings, and kept house, feeling very anxious and a little guilty when she wrote letters in which no mention was made of Beth's illness. She could not think it right to deceive her mother, but she had been bidden to mind Hannah, and Hannah wouldn't hear of `Mrs. March bein' told, and worried just for sech a trifle.'
Jo devoted herself to Beth day and night, not a hard task, for Beth was very patient, and bore her pain uncomplainingly as long as she could control herself. But there came a time when during the fever fits she began to talk in a hoarse, broken voice, to play on the coverlet as if on her beloved little piano, and try to sing w…